A brief story of Endosulfan 
From the mid 1970s to 2000, a highly toxic organochlorine pesticide Endosulfan have been aerially sprayed regularly three times every year on a cashew plantation covering 11 panchayat in Kasargod District, Kerala State, India. This was done by Plantation Corporation of Kerala (PCK), a Govt owned company. Govt. told the locals that they are spraying ‘medicine’ for killing Tea mosquitoes in the plantation. But people later realized that it was the rain of never ending agonies.People residing in the villages within the plantation have been afflicted with different kinds of illnesses which, according to the villagers, were not present before the cashew nut plantation started their operations

People also noticed the death of fishes, honeybees, frogs, birds, chicken and even cows. In 1979, a farmer began to suspect that the pesticides being aerially sprayed in the plantation might have caused the deformities and stunted growth, which, he observed in 3 of his new born calves. A journalist reported the story warning that endosulfan, the pesticide used in the aerial spraying, might have been the cause. The story raised awareness among the people who started voicing out their complaints about health problems and environmental damage. More than twenty years of spraying caused serious health hazards to the peoples. They became the victims of congenital malformations, Cancer, Neurological problems, Abnormalities of re-productive system and many sociological problems. The contamination of water and soil posed a serious threat to the entire species within the eco system


The last survey done in 20011 by the Health Department in this aria has identified nearly 4,000 victims after screening 16,000. The household survey and the screening done in 11 affected panchayats during December 2010 and January 2011 identified 3,937 victims, besides 336 in nearby panchayats. The numbers are likely to go up at least by 500 as the Health Department continues to receive complaints about non-inclusion on the list. The Kerala Government had officially declared 11 panchayats in Kasaragod as Endosulfan affected. But, in reality almost 39 panchayats are severely inflicted by it. The survey and accompanying studies officially confirmed the extent of damage done by the pesticide. Over thousand victims of Endosulfanhave already died in Kasargod District. Similar effects are also being witnessed today in Idukki, Palakkad Vayanade Dt. in Kerala and Dakshin Kannada, Kodagu and Udupi and Bhatkal in Karnataka.


People’s movement in and out of Kerala raised protest. As a result of intense campaigning Kerala High Court ordered ban on Endosulfan use. Eventually in April 2011.Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) approved the recommendation for elimination of production and use of endosulfan and its isomers worldwide, subject to certain exemptions.


Evidence is mounting on the ill-effects of Endosulfan sprayed on cashew plantations in Kasaragod district, even as the Union and the state government continued to be ambivalent on the issue. No words to express the woes and cries of Endosulfan victims. But they are welcomed by the deaf ears and closed eyes of ruling politicians. Mass agitation lead against the ruling government forced the latter to take up the responsibility. National Human Right Commission ordered the Govt to pay the compensation to the victims. Resettlement and rehabilitation measures are also asked to be conducted. Again Govt. authorities failed to set up adequate measures for the victims.


To provide socio-economic rehabilitation of the victims of this manmade disaster and rejuvenation of the ecosystem are the major tasks going to be face in future.